Depth of Field and Hyperfocal

 

Summary

 

Foreword

The circle of confusion (CoC) defines how far out of focus a point must be to be perceived by a person of normal visual ability.

The hyperfocal length is the minimum distance at which it is possible to focus while keeping objects at infinity in acceptable sharpness.
Focusing at this distance provides the widest acceptable range of sharpness, from half this distance to ∞.
The hyperfocal distance is the distance beyond which all objects have an acceptable sharpness. (source : Wikipedia)

hyperfocal = f² / (aperture * CoC)

Classical method

According to some tests, the practical results are wrong.
CoCs went from the days of film and no longer fit to the different formats and definitions of digital sensors.
A CoC correction factor (determined experimentally) was introduced.
It is such that the CoC is multiplied by 1.5.
Perform real tests after using the calculation results (without and with correction).

Format
(CoC in mm)

     with adjustment

Lens

Aperture

Distance (in meters)

 

Method for some digital cameras

This method incorporates the notion of photosite (size of the light sensitive point) of the digital sensor.
CoCs given for different cameras are the result of experiments and give results that are in line with reality.

How to figure out the CoC of a digital camera ?

pixel size cmos sensor
with surface in mm² and definition in Mpixels, size 'll be in µm.

Multiply by 1.5 to get the CoC.
Example : sensor 24x36 , definition 22,3 MPixels ⇒ size = 6,22µm ⇒ CoC = 9,33

Digital cameras
Lens
Aperture
Distance (in m)

 

Some examples

Tamron SP 150-600 G2

Some results for camera Nikon D7200 fitted with a telephoto lens Tamron 150-600 G2

The range of aperture goes from 5 to 6.3

Nikon D7200 Tamron 150-600 G2.jpg

d = 10 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

150mm f/5from 9.874 m to 10.130.256769.231
150mm f/6.3from 9.841 to 10.1640.323610.501
600mm f/5from 9.992 to 10.0080.01512307.692
600mm f/6.3from 9.99 to 10.010.0199768.01
d = 100 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

150mm f/5from 88.511 to 114.91726.406769.231
150mm f/6.3from 85.944 to 119.55333.61610.501
600mm f/5from 99.199 to 100.8141.61512307.692
600mm f/6.3from 98.993 to 101.0282.0359768.01
d = 1000 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

150mm f/5from 434.819 to ∞769.231
150mm f/6.3from 379.11 to ∞610.501
600mm f/5924.897 to 1088.378163.4812307.692
600mm f/6.3from 907.183 to 1113.975206.7929768.01
d = 10 000 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

150mm f/5from 714.296 to ∞769.231
150mm f/6.3from 575.382 to ∞610.501
600mm f/5from 5517.39 to 53319.4747802.0812307.692
600mm f/6.3from 4941.472 to ∞9768.01

Nikkor AF-S 18-70

Some results for camera Nikon D7200 fitted with a lens Nikkor AF-S 18-70

The range of aperture goes from 3.5 to 4.5

Nikkor 118-70mm f3.5-4.5G ED-IF AF-S DX

d = 1 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

18mm f/3.5from 0.942 to 1.0660.12515.824
18mm f/4.5from 0.926 to 1.0870.16112.308
70mm f/3.5from 0.996 to 1.0040.008239.16
70mm f/4.5from 0.995 to 1.0050.010186.135
d = 10 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

18mm f/3.5from 6.132 to 27.08620.95415.824
18mm f/4.5from 5.522 to 52.92147.39912.308
70mm f/3.5from 9.602 to 10.4330.831239.16
70mm f/4.5from 9.494 to 10.5640.010186.135
d = 100 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

18mm f/3.5from 13.664 to ∞15.824
18mm f/4.5from 10.961 to ∞47.39912.308
70mm f/3.5from 70.544 to 171.693101.149239.16
70mm f/4.5from 65.067 to 215.922150.854186.135

Nikkor AF-S 18-105

Some results for camera Nikon D7200 fitted with a lens Nikkor AF-S 18-105

The range of aperture goes from 3.5 to 5.6

Nikkor 18-105mm f3.5-6.5G ED-VR AF-S DX.jpg

d = 1 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

28mm f/3.5from 0.975 to 1.0260.05138.291
28mm f/5.6from 0.961 to 1.0420.08123.932
105mm f/3.5from 0.998 to 1.0020.003538.462
105mm f/5.6from 0.997 to 1.0030.005336.538
d = 10 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

28mm f/3.5from 7.934 to 13.5215.55838.291
28mm f/5.6from 7.059 to 17.14310.08523.932
105mm f/3.5from 9.82 to 10.1870.368538.462
105mm f/5.6from 9.714 to 10.3030.589336.538
d = 100 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

28mm f/3.5from 27.694 to ∞38.291
28mm f/5.6from 19.315 to ∞23.932
105mm f/3.5from 84.351 to 122.77838.426538.462
105mm f/5.6from 77.111 to 142.21365.102336.538

Sigma 70-300 mm APO DG MACRO

Some results for camera Nikon D7200 fitted with a lens Sigma 70-300 mm APO DG MACRO

The range of aperture goes from 4 to 5.6

Sigma 70-300 mm f4-5.6 APO DG MACRO.jpg

d = 10 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

70mm f/4from 9.547 to 10.4980.951209.402
70mm f/5.6from 9.377 to 10.7111.334149.573
300mm f/4from 9.975 to 10.0250.0503846.154
300mm f/5.6from 9.965 to 10.0350.0712747.253
d = 100 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

70mm f/4from 67.695 to 191.284123.589209.402
70mm f/5.6from 59.948 to 301.299/td>241.35149.573
300mm f/4from 97.473 to 102.6615.1883846.154
300mm f/5.6from 96.498 to 103.7667.2682747.253
d = 1000 m
 

Sharpness
(in m)

DoF
(in m)

Hyperfocal
(in m)

70mm f/4from 173.155 to ∞209.402
70mm f/5.6from 130.119 to ∞149.573
300mm f/4from 793.7 to 1351.209557.5093846.154
300mm f/5.6from 733.197 to 1572.057838.8612747.253

 

French references


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